Beberapa waktu yang lalu ada seorang teman yang sedang dikuliahkan ke luar negeri bertanya mengenai sistem politik di Indonesia. Sebagai orang yang belajar politik secara autodidak, dengan sedikit kebingungan dan dibantu oleh Oom Google dan Tante Wiki, maka saya bisa menjawab pertanyaan teman tersebut. Namun demikian, pertanyaan itu menggelitik saya untuk memberikan sedikit deskripsi dari kacamata orang awan atas sistem politik di Indonesia, dan saya juga mencoba menuliskannya dalam bahasa Inggris, supaya teman saya yang kuliah di luar negeri tadi bisa langsung copy and paste tulisan saya; tapi mohon maaf kalo bahasa Inggrisnya berlepotan kata yang ngawur…maklum bahasa Inggris anak desa yang pendidikannya tidak sempurna …. Seri pertama, Legislative Power Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat….Happy reading…
The abdication of the longest serving President – Five-Star-General (Ret) Soeharto – enabled the change of political system in Indonesia. The division of power known as Trias Politica that postulated by J.J Rousseau and Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu was practiced in Indonesia since its independence in 1945 until President Soekarno declared his Presidential Decree in 1959. During Soekarno’s Guided Democracy Era (1959 – 1967) and Soeharto’s New Order Era (1967 – 1998), political system in Indonesia was referred as distribution of power rather than the division of power due to the centralization and domination of power in the executives and the cooptation of legislative and judicative power on the other hand.
After the political turbulence in 1998, the People Consultative Assembly amended the 1945 Constitution during its Plenary and Annual Meeting in 1999 – 2002. Based on the 1945 Constitution Amendment, political system in Indonesia once again practised the principle known as division of power. This political power divided into three branches namely legislative, executive and judicative branches.
Legislative power was executed by three institutions namely Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) or People Consultative Assembly; Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) or People Representative Council and Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD) or Regional Representative Council. Formation and position of these legislative institutions is stipulated in Law no. 22 Year 2003.
People Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat /MPR)
MPR is the legislative branch that has the position as state institution. The members of the Assembly consisted of the members of People Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat/DPR) and the members of Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah/DPD) that were elected through general election with 5 years term that ended simultaneously as the new MPR members stated their vows. The leadership of the MPR consisted of one Chairman and three Vice-chairmen/chairwomen that reflected the DPR and DPD components and were elected among and by the members of the MPR during the Plenary Meeting.
MPR has duties and authorities to:
- amend and promulgate the Constitution;
- inaugurate President and Vice President elected in general election during Plenary Meeting;
- legitimize the proporsal of DPR based on the decision of the Constitution Supreme Court to impeach the President and/or Vice President during his/her tenure after the aforementioned President and/or Vice President to deliver his/her explanation before the MPR’s Plenary Meeting;
- inaugurating Vice President to be President if President deceased, resigned, impeached, or was incapable to carry out his/her duties during the tenure;
- appointing Vice President from two candidates who was submitted by the President if the Vice President position was vacant during his/her tenure no later than sixty days;
- appointing President and Vice President if both resigned at the same time during their tenure from two pairs of President and Vice President candidate that submitted by political party or coalition of political party whose President and Vice President pairs earned first and second biggest votes in previous election until the current tenure expired in thirty days;
- enacting codes of conduct and ethical codes of the MPR.
The member of MPR sustains rights such as:
- Submitting proposal of alteration of articles of the Constitution
- Taking stand and choice in decision making process;
- Electing and being elected
- Financial and administrative.
MPR will have its Plenary Meeting once in five years in the Republic’s Capital City. Other than that, MPR will have Meeting in order to perform its duties and authorities. The Meeting of the MPR will legitimate if attended by:
- At least ¾ of overall MPR members to decide DPR proposal to impeach President and/or Vice President;
- At least ⅔ of overall MPR members to alter and promulgate the Constitution;
- At least 50% plus 1 of overall MPR members for Meeting other than aforementioned Meeting.
MPR Apparatus consisted of:
- Leadership Board
- Ad Hoc Committee
- Ethical Committee